The Ethernet is the most commonly used Local Area Network (LAN) technology. Originally developed by Xerox in the 1970's, Ethernet was designed to run on coaxial cables originally, but now, runs on special grades of twisted pair cables or fiber optic cables. The standards of Ethernet are slowly evolving to incorporate new media and providing higher transfer speeds. Initially, Ethernet assumed a shared medium, connecting multiple devices to each segment of the network in a daisy chain. But this came with problems since complete networks shared just one cable, any information sent by one computer was received by all, even if that information was intended for just one destination. The other problem was bandwidth since the whole system used one cable, the entire system shared the bandwidth, and so if two systems ran in parallel, the bandwidth would have been halved. In larger networks, the usage of a single cable also meant that in case of a cable failure in one place or a damaged conductor would make the whole network unusable.
The modern-day Ethernet does not share one channel through the shared cable. Instead, each system works via a switch that directs traffic towards the destination system. The 100 BASE-T Ethernet systems that are commonly used these days provide transfer speeds of up to 100 megabits per second (Mbps). Systems that communicate over an Ethernet network divide streams of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame consists of the source and destination addresses and error-checking data that allows for the detection of damaged frames, which are then discarded. Each frame of data is wrapped up in a packet that attaches bytes of information used to establish the connection and markings of the origin of the frame. As Ethernets are extremely common, manufacturers are now building Ethernet interfaces directly into computer motherboards, negating the need for a separate network card.
Ethernet, a technology developed by Xerox in late 1970, has evolved as the backbone of modern networking today. Technically, Ethernet is IEEE 802.3 protocol that controls the data transmission over a local area network (LAN). LAN is widely used in contrast with wide area network (WAN) which is adopted for larger geographical area networks. Over time, the Ethernet protocol has evolved and improved, delivering the speed of a gigabit per second. Ethernet was designed to run on coaxial cables originally, but today, it runs on special grades of twisted pair cables or fiber optic cables. The standards of Ethernet are in a pace of evolution to incorporate new media and providing higher transfer speeds. Ethernet networking generally creates a communication system allowing data sharing within devices including printers, scanners, and fax machines.
In a traditional Ethernet setup, when a machine on the network is sending data to another, the initial process is to check all the main wire connecting the devices. Once the device concludes that all the connections are free without any data traffic, it sends the data packet on the network, and all other devices check the packet to see whether they are the recipient. The recipient consumes the packet. However, if there is already a packet on the network, the device trying to send packet holds back the data for some thousandths of a second to try again until it can resend.
Initially, Ethernet was used for connecting multiple devices to each segment of the network in a daisy chain. This came with several networking issues as the complete network shared just one cable. Any information that was shared by a computer was received by all the devices connected to the network, even if that information was intended for just one destination. Another major issue was the bandwidth, as the entire system used a single cable, the entire network shared the bandwidth, and so if two systems ran in parallel, the bandwidth would have been halved. In larger networks, the usage of a single cable also meant that in case of a cable failure in any one area would make the whole network unusable.
The modern-day Ethernet has evolved so much that it does not share one channel through the shared cable. Instead, each system works via a switch that can direct traffic towards the destination system from the sender. The modern 100 BASE-T Ethernet systems are commonly used these days and provide transfer speeds of up to 100 megabits per second.
Network systems and devices that communicate over an Ethernet divide streams of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame consists of the source and destination addresses and error-checking data that enable detection of damaged frames, which are then discarded. Each frame of data is wrapped up in a packet that attaches bytes of information used to establish the connection and markings of the origin of the frame. As Ethernets are extremely common, manufacturers are now building Ethernet interfaces directly into computer motherboards, negating the need for a separate
Ethernet is the most widely installed local area network (LAN) technology that is a link layer protocol in the transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol stack that describes how connected devices in a network can format data for transmission to other network devices on the same network segment. It also defines how to put the particular data out on the network connection. It touches both Layer 1 (the physical layer) and Layer 2 (the data link layer) on the open systems interconnection (OSI) network protocol model. Ethernet describes two units of data transmission that includes the packets and frame. The frame includes not just the "payload" of data being transmitted but also addressing information identifying the physical "Media Access Control" (MAC) addresses of both sender and receiver, VLAN tagging as well as QoS information, and error-correction details for detecting problems in a transmission.
Today, the main type of Ethernet includes a wired setup and a wireless Ethernet system. In a wired Ethernet system, it works with the fiber optic cables that connect devices within a distance of 10 km. A network interface card (NIC) is installed on each computer with a unique address within the network for enabling Ethernet. An Ethernet cable runs from each NIC to the central switch or a hub in the network that acts as a relay. Rather than using Ethernet cable to connect the computers, wireless NICs use radio waves for two-way communication with a wireless switch or hub. It consists of Ethernet ports, switches, and hubs. Though wireless network technology is flexible as well as mobile, it requires extra care in configuring the security.
The maximum data rate of the traditional Ethernet systems was up to 10 megabits per second. However, over time, the second generation fast Ethernet provides up to 100 Mbps, whereas the latest version, Gigabit Ethernet works at 1000 Mbps. Switched Ethernet involves adding switches so that each workstation can have its own dedicated 10 Mbps connection rather than sharing the medium, which can improve network throughput. Moreover, it has the advantage over rival switched technologies such as asynchronous transfer mode that it employs the same low-level protocols, cheap cabling, and network interface cards as ordinary Ethernet.
10 Gigabit Ethernet is the most recent as well as the fastest of the Ethernet standards. IEEE 802.3ae defines a version of Ethernet with a nominal rate of 10Gbits/s that makes it 10 times faster than Gigabit Ethernet. Contrasting other Ethernet systems, 10 Gigabit Ethernet works entirely based on the use of optical fiber connections. This developing standard is moving away from a LAN design that broadcasts to all nodes, toward an innovative system which includes some elements of wide area routing.
Whereas, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a cell-based fast-packet communication technique that can support data-transfer rates from sub-T1 speeds to 10 Gbps. The high speed of ATM is achieved by transmitting data in fixed-size cells and then dispensing with error-correction protocols. The ATM technique relies on the inherent integrity of digital lines for ensuring better data integrity.
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