The use of computers, storage, networking and infrastructure to produce, process, manipulate, store, secure and share electronic data is known as information technology.
First appearing in an article published in the Harvard Business Review in 1958, IT is considered a subset of ICT (Information communication technology). IT industry has progressed in leaps since its introduction. It has now become so integrated into our lives that it is impossible for us to think of a world without it. Information technology evolved from the mid 20th century and encompassed transistors and integrated circuits.
The emergence of technology has led to decrease in energy consumption and device cost.
Information technology uses hardware and software tools to perform its functions. Hardware tools include the physical equipments like the user device such as laptops, tablets, mobile phones, sound recorders etc, while software includes the operating system and virtualization to perform the essential functions. The landscape of information technology also includes architectures, methodologies, and rules regarding the usage and application of electronic data.
Information technology is included in many business applications.
Database Servers – Computer programs that provide database service to other computers.
E- Mail servers- An application which receives mails, and forward outgoing mails to senders.
Web servers- Computers that deliver web pages.
Servers interact with the client users across business networks. Any technology that has stored data is storage. It can be in the form of multimedia, audio, video, web data etc. Storage can be done either in volatile or non-volatile drives. The volatile drive includes RAM, random access memory and non-volatile drive includes tape and hard disk.
With the change in technology, information technology and its trends keeps on changing. Some of the current trends in the information technology are as follows:
Cloud computing: An internet based computing, that provides shared data to computers and other devices on demand. Cloud computing reduces IT infrastructure cost of the company, promotes the concept of virtualization, which enables server and storage device to be utilized across the organization.
Maintenance of software and hardware is also made easier using cloud technology.
Mobile applications: Mobile applications have been a success since its introduction. They can be downloaded from the internet.
User interface: User interface has revolutionized after the advent of touch screens. Touch screens enable one to interact directly with the display, thus avoiding any intermediate device. This is used mostly in smartphones, tablets etc.
Analytics: A combination of statistics, computer programming and operations research, analytics helps in discovering the informational patterns with data.
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