In packet-switched networks such as the internet, a router is a device or, in some cases, software on a computer, that determines the best way for a packet to be forwarded to its destination.
A router is a device, both hardware and software, that determines the best way for a packet to be forwarded to its destination in packet-switched networks such as the internet. It acts as a bridge that connects multiple networks. The router is known as layer3 device and works also on hardware technology and map the mac addresses. It basically connects two different networks or net-ids to each other. It works with a routing table.
A router connect networks based on its current understanding of the state of the network it is connected to, a router acts as a dispatcher as it decides which way to send each information packet. A router is located at any gateway (where one network meets another), including each point-of-presence on the internet. A router is often included as part of a network switch.
A router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet. Typically, a packet may travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination. Routing is a task associated with the network layer (Layer 3) in the standard model of network programming, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. A Layer 3 switch is a switch that can perform routing functions.
An edge router is a device located at the boundary of a network that connects to other networks, wide area networks or the internet. For home and business computer users who have high-speed internet connections such as cable, satellite or DSL, a router can act as a hardware firewall. Many engineers believe that the use of a router provides better protection against hacking than a software firewall because no computer internet protocol addresses are directly exposed to the internet. This makes port scans essentially impossible. In addition, a router does not consume computer resources, which a software firewall does. Commercially manufactured routers are easy to install and are available for hard-wired or wireless networks.
Why is a router used?
A router is used to link one network to another network, and is how the Internet is held together. It is a very intelligent device and is becoming more and more complex. They use many various protocols for many various reasons and have to perform many functions or tasks all at the same time. In the control plane, the router acts in a more neat and smart way. It can send the precise data packets to their specific location. While in the forwarding plane, the ultimate objective of the router system is to deliver the data packets, the forwarding decision takes place at the data link layer of the OSI model.
A router acts as a dispatcher of information as its main function is to decide which way to send each information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the network. When a data packet arrives on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its destination address. It then directs the packet to the next network on its journey.
Located at any gateway where one network meets another, a router is often included as part of a network switch including each point-of-presence on the internet. Routers usually create and maintain a table of the available routes and conditions along with distance and cost algorithms for determining the best route for a given packet. Typically, a packet travels through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its destination. The routing of information is associated with the network layer (Layer 3) in the standard model of network programming, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. A Layer 3 switch is a switch that can perform routing functions.
An edge router is a type of router which is located at the boundary of a network that helps in connecting with other networks, wide area networks, and the internet. For home and business users having high-speed internet connections such as cable, satellite, or DSL, router can be used as a firewall against outside networks. In many cases, routers can be leveraged to harness better protection against hacking compared to a software firewall because no computer internet protocol addresses are directly exposed to the internet. This not only makes port scans impossible for the hackers, but also a router does not consume computer resources unlike software firewalls. Commercially available routers are easy to install (usually plug-and-play) and are available for hard-wired or wireless networks.
Without routing, there is no way to access out-of-network resources or the internet. Efficient routing is one of the most important parts of any IT administrator's job. Latest concepts such as static vs. dynamic routing, switch-level routing, and key dynamic IPv4 and IPV6 routing protocols are reshaping the entire network routing landscape.
A broadband router or a residential/home gateway combines the features of a traditional network switch, a network firewall, and a DHCP server. Apart from the ease of sharing the internet connection, broadband routers also allow users to share files, printers, and other resources among the connected computers. Most modern routers offer wireless connectivity, unlike early routers that provided several ethernet ports for wired connections. Such wireless routers have one or two moveable antennas on the sides, though some models house the antennas inside the enclosure. These wireless routers allow multiple computers and other devices, such as smartphones and tablets, to join the same network.
Unlike a hub or a switch which are only able to perform basic network functions, a router has a lot more capabilities than other network devices. A hub transfers data between computers or network devices but does not analyze the data it is transferring.
A network router, on the other hand, may take the data being sent over a network, change how it is packaged, and send it to another network or over a different type of network.
The networking standards are known as 802.11n and 802.11g. A router is used to interconnect LANs. A router between two LAN has two interfaces, one on each LAN. There are different types of routers such as brouter, core router, edge router, virtual router, and wireless router (Wi-Fi router). Dual-band Wi-Fi routers support multiple radios and operate on both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz bands. These routers effectively allow households to set up two wireless sub-networks and get the benefits of both kinds.
When the router is placed at the boundary of an ISP and when they communicate with the edge router. Working at the boundary of the subscriber’s network, this router helps to communicate between BGP speaker and ISPs AS. Dual-band routers are a solution to signal interference. They provide the users with the ability to switch between frequencies of 2.4GHz and 5GHz to avoid the congestion in traffic, Due to the fact that many household devices will give off 2.4GHz radio frequencies.
The interference can happen to the Wi-Fi signal, because the interference will slow down the speed of the Internet, reduce the range of Wi-Fi and cause some intermittent signals. Dual-band routers are compatible with wireless devices. They support both the 2.4GHz and 5GHz in which both should be able to work with any network adapter.
Although the point-to-point wire connections provide an alternative, many modern communications setups require the router to best function. The routers are of many kinds depending on the need of the enterprises. The largest routers such as Cisco CRS-1 & Juniper T-1600 are used to set up a network of large organizations & even of the ISPs.
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