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A software Bug is an error, fault, or failure in a computer program that results in inaccurate outcomes or performs action(s) in an unintended way. Fundamentally, a bug is a coding error in programming. The majority of the bugs occur from errors made either in a program’s design or source code. A program inflicted with numerous bugs is termed as ‘Buggy’. In case a bug is discovered after the product release, the software teams focus on fixing the bug in quickest possible time to avoid large-scale damage at the user end.

Bugs generally cause insignificant, yet annoying computer malfunctions, but their impact can also result in many severe issues. For example, a bug in the code that controlled the Therac-25 radiation therapy machine was responsible for the death of at least five patients when it administered excessive number of X-rays. In another instance, several people lost their lives due to the bug in an Electronic Throttle Control System (ETCS) that caused sudden unintended accelerations.

A bug is closely related to product specifications, popularly known as ‘spec’. The occurrence of a bug can be detected through various methods. For instance, when the action is not performed by the product which is specified by the spec or when the product carries out an unintended action which should not be done according to the specs. There are numerous causes for bugs and some of them are listed below:

- Human error

Inadvertent mistakes made by the developers are a major cause of bugs. It is difficult to detect a bug while a programmer writes a program. It is more often identified during testing a program.

- Insufficient testing

Insufficient testing during the development process results in bugs.

- Intermittent Problems

Bugs that randomly occur in complex systems and are difficult to trace and understand create intermittent problems.

Testing at every stage of development

Bugs should be identified and eliminated early in the development process. Functional testing which is undertaken by QA professionals and Unit testing performed by developers should be intertwined throughout the project.

Bug fixes should be prioritized

Few bugs require an urgent fix to move onto the additional challenges whereas others can be saved for future. The development team should be capable of explaining how to prioritize bugs to make sure that the deadlines are met.

The process of finding and removing bugs is termed as debugging. Debugging begins right after the programmer writes the code and the process continues in subsequent stages as the code is joined with other units of programming to form a software product.








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