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URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. URL is commonly referred to as web address. As the name indicates, URL is the global address of documents and resources on the World Wide Web. URL is a specific form of URI (Uniform Resource Indicator) expressed through a string of characters to categorize a resource in the network.

Parts of a URL

The URL can be segmented into three parts. The first part is the protocol identifier, second part is the host name, and the third part indicates the file name. A colon separates the protocol identifier, the resource name, and two forward slashes.
The example above depicts a URL where HTTP indicates a protocol, ( is the hostname, and file name is index.html.

Moreover, if there are two URLs (as mentioned below), with the same hostname, the protocol defines the direction for accessing the different files at the domain The first example specifies an executable file (stuff.exe) that should be fetched by using the FTP protocol and the second signifies a webpage that requires being fetched using HTTP protocol.

Types of URL:

Absolute URL 

An absolute URL is independent of any relationship and points at the accurate place of the file. For example, specifies that the image file ‘welcome.gif’ is located in the ‘images’ directory, under domain name ‘findresult’.

Relative URL

The relative URL on the other hand finds the location of a file within the present directory where it is located. The relative URLs usually have a shorter length since it does not refer to the exact location of the file. While relative URLs can be helpful to webmasters since it does not involve re-writing of the entire file path, it is necessary to ensure that the active or the present directory is the location where the searched file is placed. 
For instance: ../image/welcome.gif is a relative URL. The initial two periods [..] in the URL command the server to shift up the directory by one, then go into images directory to point at ‘welcome.gif’ file.

Internationalized URL

People use web services throughout the world, and they are using a myriad of languages to create domain names for URLs in their own alphabets. Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) is used to standardize the URL nomenclature with Unicode characters. Most of the browsers today support IRIs making a URL in local alphabet accessible across another part of the world.

With the help of Unicode characters, a web-based software can automatically translate the domain name into puny code usable by the Domain Name System to comprehend. 
For instance, the Chinese URL http://例子.卷筒纸 becomes http://xn--fsqu00a.xn--3lr804guic/. The xn-- indicates that the character was not originally ASCII.

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